Ad Libitum

It comes from the Latin and means ‘at one’s pleasure’ and is commonly known as ‘Ad Lib’ or ‘Ad Libbing’.

In Music, Ad Libitum generally refers to an artist (singer or musician) who deliver spontaneously or improvise without restraint, prior practice or limit. However, playing ad libitum can mean a variety of things depending on its context:

• A performer can play a passage in free time rather than a specified tempo;
• A musician can improvise a melodic line of a passage as long as the melody fits within the existing harmonic structure of the passage;
• For a piece with more than one instrument, ad libitum means that one of the instruments is not an integral part of the harmony or melody and therefore, can be optional;
• A performer who ‘repeats ad libitum’ means he can play a passage as many times as he desires. If it is at the end of a song, he can repeat and fade-out.




An album is a musical recording containing as many tracks as required from an artist or group (normally 11 or 12 tracks). It is sold in the form of CD’s, records and/or digital files. An album has more than four tracks and lasts more than 25 minutes. There are three types of albums: studio, live […]

Extended Play (EP)

It is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single but less than an album. It lasts more or less 15 minutes and is made up of four tracks. The EP appeared for the first time in the 50’s and made a come back in the 2000’.


It is a repeating section of a piece of music. In other words, it is a sound that is repeated continuously. The length varies from a few seconds to several minutes. Loops started being used in the 50’s-60’s. And in the early 90’s, digital devices were invented specifically to allow musicians to use live looping […]


Originally, a mixtape is a compilation of music recorded onto an audio cassette and now, through CD or digital playlist (mp3). It is composed of different tracks from one or several artists or groups. It usually proposes music linked by theme or mood, or can be a selection of favourite songs,… However, thanks to Hip […]

Music Group

A music group is more known as a pop or rock band. It is usually composed of both singer(s) and musicians. They perform rock, pop or related music genres. In most of the cases, a music group is formed on his own. e.g. Linkin Park, Coldplay, Bon Jovi, Pet Shop Boys, Black Eyed Peas, Rolling […]

Musical Act

An « act » or « musical act » is a term used to qualify whoever is performing music, either a solo artist, a band or an orchestra.


Rapping is a musical form of vocal delivery often associated with Hip-hop music & culture but according to certain sources, its origin might come from the West African griot tradition. Three elements compose this musical form: the lyrics, the flow (rythme, rhyme) and the tone (delivery). Rap is usually performed in time to an instrumental […]

Riffs & Runs

A (vocal) run is an improvised musical passage that is usually based on a scale and tend to have small intervals between notes. It is mostly melodic and offer some kind of uniformity with the instrumental. A (vocal) riff is a repeated type of notes that has any kind of intervals. But it can also […]

Sides (A & B)

They have been introduced with (vinyl) records. As they don’t have a track 1 and can be turn round, the sides help to highlight the songs. Nowadays, with CDs & digital, the sides are rarely used as the tracks are presented in an established order (track list).